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U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science

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When gaseous carbon dioxide (center) is dissolved in water, its water-fearing or hydrophobic nature creates a cylindrical cavity in the liquid, setting the stage for the proton transfer reactions that produce carbonic acid

The Importance of Hydration

Spectroscopy combined with theory and computation determines the interaction between carbon dioxide and water.

Jefferson Lab's K20 supercomputer.

Supercomputing on a Budget

The optimization of commercial hardware and specialized software enables cost-effective supercomputing.